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Electricity 10th Class Notes
Before starting the discussion of Notes of Chapter Electricity Class 10th, you have to know that “What is Current or Electricity”.
Conservative Part I of Chapter 5 of Class 10 Science
What is Electric : Electric is an intrinsic property of protons (+) and electrons (-). It is also known as electric charge. It have been classified mainly two types – (i) Positive Charge and (ii) Negative Charge.
Now, What is Electricity : The electricity deals with motion of electric charge. Electricity is divided in two types i.e. (i) Static Electricity or Frictional Electricity and (ii) Current Electricity.
(i) Static Electricity OR Frictional Electricity: The electricity which is produced by friction between two appropriate bodies, is called Static Electricity. This is also known as Frictional Electricity.
For Example – When a plastic comb is rubbed with dry hair, the acquired a property of attracting small bits of paper, dust etc. In this state, the plastic comb is charged with electricity.
(ii) Current Electricity : Flow of charge in any type of conductor is basically known as Current Electricity.
Now, What is Electric Current : It is defined as the rate of flow of electric charge through conductor. If amount of charge flows is ‘q’ in ‘t’ time, then
Current Electricity, I= Charge (q)/Time(t) = ne/t,
where n= number of electrons flowing through the conductor and
e= electronic charge=1.6×10^-19
SI unit of Electric Current is ampere (A).
We know that the SI unit of Electric Current is ampere (A) from the above. But What is called ampere ?
Ampere (A) : In Briefly, It is a ratio of coulomb (C) and time (t). The amount of electric current flowing through any conductor’s cross section when 1 coulomb of charge flows in 1 second is known as 1 ampere.
1 ampere = 1 coulomb / 1 second => A=C/s
Coulomb Law : The electrostatic force of interaction acting between two stationary point charge is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Let, two point charges q₁ and q₂. They are placed in respectively A and B. The electrostatic force between them is F.
SI unit of k is N.m².C⁻²
Types of Electric Current
Electric Current is two types according to magnitude and direction , i.e. (i) Direct Current and (ii) Alternative Current.
(i) Direct Current (DC) : Magnitude and direction do not change with time, that type of electric current is known as Direct Current. For ex. Battery, Cell, DC dynamo.
(ii) Alternative Current (AC) : Magnitude changes continuously and direction changes periodically, that type of electric current is known as Alternative Current. For ex. AC dynamo.
Electric Field : The space in the surrounding of any change in which its influence can be experienced by other change, is known as electric field OR in short, The field created by a charge in their surroundings is called electric field.
SI unit of Electric Field Intensity is newton/coulomb.
Electric Potential (V) : Briefly it is a ratio of Work done(W) and unit charge (q). Electric Potential is equal to the work done per unit charge in carrying a test charge from infinity a a point in an electric field.
So, Electric Potential V = W/q
Where V= V₁ – V₂
SI unit of Electric Potential is volt (V).
CGS unit of Electric Potential is esu or statvolt.
Electricity Quiz (Try it after reading all questions)
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What is Electric Current ?
Ratio of Charge and Time
Ratio of Radius and Time
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Reciprocal of resistance is known as ?
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Important Questions with Answers Part I
Now, Carefully read the important Electrical Questions and Answer of Current 10 Class Notes
1. What is Electric Charge ?
Ans. An intrinsic property of protons (+) and electrons (-).
2. What is the SI unit of Electric Charge ?
Ans. coulomb (C).
3. Electric Charge is Vector quantity / Scalar quantity ?
Ans. Scalar quantity.
4. Amount of negative charge of an electron is –
Ans. 1.6 × 10⁻¹⁹.
5. What is Electricity ?
Ans. It is a motion of electric charge (proton and electron).
6. A glass rod is rubbed with silk then this rod attract small bits of feathers- What is this attracting power which is acquire by the rod ?
Ans. It is static electricity.
7. What is Frictional Electricity ?
Ans. The electricity which is produced by friction between two appropriate bodies.
8. What is Electric Current ?
Ans. It is ratio of Charge and Time.
9. Ampere is the SI unit of ?
Ans. Electric Current.
10. What happened in DC in electricity?
Ans. Magnitude and direction do not change with time.
11. What happened in AC ?
Ans. Magnitude changes continuously and direction changes periodically.
12. Which is called Inverter?
Ans. The device which converts DC to AC.
13. In solid conductors, electric current flows due to –
Ans. Flows of electrons.
14. In liquids, electric current flows due to –
Ans. Flows of ions as well as electrons.
15. In semiconductors, electric current flows due to-
Ans. Flows of electrons and holes.
16. SI unit of Electric Potential is ?
Ans. joule/coulomb (j/c).
17. What is Potential Difference ?
Ans. Difference of potentials of two points in the electric field.
18. A physical quantity which decides the direction of flow of charge between two points in electric field ?
Ans. Potential Difference.
19. SI unit of Potential Difference is ?
Ans. volt (V).
20. The device which is used to measure the electrical potential difference between to point in a circuit is ?
21. How to connect a voltmeter with electric circuit ?
Ans. In parallel.
22. wood, plastic, rubber is the example of –
23. What is semiconductor ?
Ans. This is a type of materials which do not have free electron at normal temperature. But has the free electrons at the increased temperature.
24. Silicon, germanium etc are the example of ?
25. SI unit of Current Density is ?
Ans. ampere/metre². It is vector quantity.
26. AC dynamo is source of –
Ans. Alternative Current.
27. Battery is the source of –
Ans. Direct Current.
28. Relation between Work Done (W), Electric Charge (Q) and Potential Difference (V) is –
Ans. Potential Difference = [Work Done] / [Electric Charge] OR V= W/Q.
Conservative Part II of Chapter 5 of Class X Science
Electric Resistance : The resist property in the path of flow of current by any conductor is called Electric Resistance. SI unit is ohm (Ω)
Resistivity : The resistivity is known as the electric resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit area of cross section. SI unit is ohm-metre.
Conductance : Reciprocal of resistance is known as Conductance. SI unit is mho (Ω⁻¹)
Conductivity : Reciprocal of resistivity of a conductor is called Conductivity. SI unit is mho m⁻¹ (Ω⁻¹ m⁻¹) OR siemen m⁻¹.
Combination of Resistance : This is a method of joined two or more resistors to each others by different combination. It is two types – (i) Series Combination and (ii) Parallel Combination.
Series Combination : Let’s three different resistance are R₁, R₁, R₃. So in series combination, this three resistance are connected in series. Then the Equivalent Resistance, R = R₁ + R₂ + R₃
Parallel Combination : Let’s three different resistance are R₁, R₂, R₃. So in parallel combination, this three resistance are connected in parallely. Then the Equivalent Resistance, R = R₁R₂R₃/(R₂R₃ + R₁R₃ + R₁R₂)
Ohm’s Law : It states that electric current (I) flowing through it is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) applied across its end if all physical conditions like temperature, pressure etc remains same.
Mathematical form of Ohm’s Law, I∝V or V=IR or I=V/R.
What is Superconductor : When few metals are cooled, then below a certain critical temperature their electrical resistance suddenly becomes zero. This type of metals are called Superconductors and this phenomenon is known as Superconductivity.
Lead becomes Superconductor at 7.25 K.
Kirchhoff’s Current Law : It state that the net current on a junction in an electric circuit will be zero.
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law : It state that the algebraic sum of all the potential difference along a closed loop is zero.
Joule’s Law : When electric current flows on any conductor then this current produced Heating Effect. The great scientist Joule present three law on this Heating Effect production.
(i) Heating effect (H) is equivalent to electric current (I) if resistance and electric flow time remain unchanged.
(ii) Heating effect (H) is equivalent to resistance (R) if electric current and electric flow time remain unchanged.
(iii) Heating effect (H) is equivalent to electric flow time (t) if resistance and electric current remain unchanged.
Faraday’s Law : The another most important law in Electric Current Class 10 Notes is Faraday’s Law. Faraday states two laws known as Faraday’s First Law and Faraday’s Second Law.
Faraday 1st Law : The total mass deposited at an electrode in the process of electrolysis is directly proportional to the total charge (q) passed through the electrolyte.
In mathematical terms, m ∝ q, m = Zq = ZIt, where I= electric current, Z = electrochemical equivalent of the substances deposited at electrode.
Faraday 2nd Law : If same strength of electric current is allowed to flow for same time in different electrolytes, then mass of the substance liberated at the electrodes is directly proportional to their chemical equivalent.
In mathematical terms, m ∝ E or m1/m2 = E1/E2
Questions and Answers Part II From Class 10 Electric Notes
Most important Current Questions and Answers
29. What is the SI unit of Electric Resistance ?
Ans. Ohm (Ω).
30. Dimension of Electric Resistance is –
31. What happened with resistivity when increases the dimension of conductor ?
Ans. Resistivity is independent of dimensions of the conductor. It is depends on temperature and nature of material only.
32. What happened with resistivity when increases the temperature of conductor ?
Ans. Resistivity increase.
33. Reciprocal of resistance is known as ?
34. Reciprocal of resistivity is known as ?
35. Temperature coefficient of resistance (α) of semiconductors and insulators is –
36. Potential difference across each resistor remains same in –
39. If the current increases by double the resistance will be –
40. The result of high resistivity of alloys is –
Ans. It dissipation of electrical energy in the form of heat.
41. The relation between resistance (R) and area of cross-section of a conductor is –
Ans. R (proportional to) 1/A.
42. The resistance of electrolyte deceases with –
Ans. Increases of temperature.
43. What is “Electric Cell” ? Ans. The device which converts chemical energy into electrical electrical energy.
44. Acid and alkali accumulators are the example of –
Ans. Secondary cell.
45. Electromotive force is –
Ans. e.m.f is work but not a force.
46. Fuse is made by-
Ans. Tin, lead, alloy.
47. What is “Electric Power” ? Ans. The electrical energy produced or consumed per unit time is called electric power.
48. What is “Electroplating” ? Ans. The process of coating of a based metal with a layer of more expensive metal.
49. What is used to detect small temperature changes and to measure very low temperature ? Ans. Thermistors.
50. An electric bulb filament made of-
51. What type of gases used to fill electric bulb space to prolong the life of filament ? Ans. Inactive nitrogen OR argon gas.
52. What is the reasons to start a car engine more easier on a warm day than on a chilly day ? Ans. Because in warm day, the temperature is increased so, the internal resistance of the battery decreases.
53. Why lights of a car are dimmed when a car is starting ? Ans. Because, when the starter is operated then it draws more current from the battery for the operation of the car. That is why the voltage across the light bulb is lowered.
54. 1 HP = ? Watt ?
Ans. 746 watt.
55. What type of ray is used in fluorescent light ? Ans. UV ray OR ultraviolet ray.
Electricity and Magnetism Questions and Answers
That is almost all required topics and questions from Electricity 10th Class Notes – Notes of Chapter Electricity Class 10th